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The effects of covid-19 on Saudi Arabia’s economy

The effects of covid-19 on Saudi Arabia’s economy


Covid-19, the emerging pandemic, has been recognized worldwide in recent months, where infections such as influenza and fatalities have risen massively . Undoubtedly, the pandemic has caused social, economic, and health crisis and is the biggest threat that the world has faced ever since the Second World War. Not only has the pandemic caused a major global health crisis, but it has also changed the way people work in their daily lives. According to World Health Organization (2020), Covid-19 has caused more than 2.5 million deaths globally, with total confirmed cases in Saudi Arabia at 376, 021 and a total of 6475 confirmed deaths as of 25th Feb 2021 (Figure 1) (World meter, 2020). Through this, the government has enacted certain measures to contain and safeguard the citizens against Covid-19 infection.  According to Nurunnabi (2020), these measures include; maintaining social distancing, proper sanitization, use of face masks at all times, travel restrictions, lockdown, and curfews. This essay explores the demographic, job, and market impact of Covid-19 in Saudi Arabia.

Figure 1: Coronavirus cases in KSA

Figure 1: Coronavirus cases in KSA


Saudi Arabia has been regarded as one of the largest producers of crude oil globally, accounting for a 12.4% production rate and with a production capacity of 12.2 million barrels of oil in a day in 2019(Statista,2020) (figure 2).

Figure 2: Global oil production by country

Figure 2: Global oil production by country

According to Mirza (2020), Saudi Arabia’s oil export production was 7.24

million barrels per day. However, The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that oil and gas sales for various main suppliers will plunge by about 50 to 85% in 2020, based on an oil price of USD 30 per barrel.  However, according to Collins (2020), the COVID-19 pandemic has decreased global crude oil demand and has negatively impacted domestic operations; through this, a deep slump is threatening the world’s largest oil exporter. As stated by Oxford Business Group (2020), the pandemic has also contributed to a substantial decrease in global oil demand, leading to a price drop from an annual peak of just under $69 per barrel on 6th January to $26.82 by the end of March. In addition, provided that the supply of oil accounted for 63% of national revenues, the fall in demand for oil products would greatly add pressure on the total government budgets (Kitous, Saveyn, Keramidas, Vandyck., Santos, & Wojtowicz,2016)

Effects on Unemployment

Measures have been introduced throughout the world to prevent the epidemic from spreading further. Steps such as complete lockdown within the nation have caused major businesses to shut down completely. According to Plecher (2020) (figure 2), With a total population of 33million, most of Saudi Arabia’s inhabitants heavily rely on the oil and gas industries; as a result, huge unemployment rates have been recorded due to the foreclosure of enterprises within the nation as a result of the pandemic. Consequently, about 3.6% of the total population have been affected by the pandemic. Plecher (2020) further explains that in 2020 approximately 5.86% unemployment rate was recorded in 2020 (figure 3).

Figure 3: Saudi Arabia: Unemployment rate from 1999 to 2020

Figure 3: Saudi Arabia: Unemployment rate from 1999 to 2020

In addition, the unemployment level was clearly primarily due to government regulations to prevent the epidemic from spreading further throughout the country.

Effects on Markets

Without a doubt, Saudi Arabia’s market for crude oil was greatly affected by the pandemic. The pandemic greatly influenced the overall output of Saudi Arabia, which is renowned for commercial oil production; hence the overall government revenue in the country decreased. Besides, dairy products’ demand and consumption decreased significantly by 60-70 percent; in reference to decreased consumption of dairy products, large restaurants experienced low consumer engagement and decreased online orders centered on dairy products (Roy, 2020). On the contrary, from a previous study, according to Mirza (2020), during the pandemic, 41% of respondents identified that trade and online retail industries mainly benefited from the pandemic. According to Oxford Business Group (2020) (figure 4), A local online retailer firm claimed that the average revenue on a period of 10 days had risen by 200% since the outbreak of the Covid-19 while its average order value soared by 50% and an addition of 400 percent of users downloading their software.

Figure 4: Improvement of selected product /services during Covid-19 pandemic

Figure 4: Improvement of selected product /services during Covid-19 pandemic


In conclusion, the pandemic has caused major drawbacks globally but more significantly on Saudi Arabia’s oil-producing companies. However, the government has developed strategies that have helped foster economic cohesion with much of the suspension of industries and intense macroeconomic strain. Government financing has made it possible for industries such as the digital development market and the corporate sector to thrive even during the pandemic. Considering the various risks posed by the pandemic, especially in Saudi Arabia, the government has developed measures and means to protect human lives while promoting peace and security among all people living in Saudi Arabia. It is fair to state that Covid-19 has encouraged major innovation in the distribution of online services, considering the negativity that Covid-19 brings. Yet, more significantly, it has revealed the future advantages of e-commerce to millions of people in Saudi Arabia during the devastating pandemic era.


Al-Gharaibah, O. B. (2020). Online Consumer Retention In Saudi Arabia During COVID 19: The Moderating Role Of Online Trust. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(9), 2464-2472.

Kitous, A., Saveyn, B., Keramidas, K., Vandyck, T., Rey Los Santos, L., & Wojtowicz, K. (2016). Impact of low oil prices on oil exporting countries. JRC Science for Policy Report.

Mirza, P, A,(2020). Export volume of crude oil from Saudi Arabia from 2000 to 2017 with projections until 2020(in million barrels per day). [2020 update]retrived from,13.3%20million%20barrels%20per%20day.

Nurunnabi, M. (2020). The preventive strategies of COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. [2020 update] retrieved from

Oxford Business Group, (2020). Covid-19 and the oil price slump in Africa: which countries will fare better?. [2020 update] retrived from

Plecher (2020). Unemployment rate in Saudi Arabia in 2020. [2020 update] retrived from’s%20estimated,in%20the%20total%20labor%20force.

Roy (2020). COVID-19 Impact on the Dairy Market in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). [2020 update] retrived from

WHO, (2020). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. [2020 update] retrieved from

Worldometer, (2020). Total Coronavirus Cases in Saudi Arabia. [2020 update] retrieved from


Unemployment in Saudi Arabia

Unemployment in Saudi Arabia


Unemployment and inflation are some of the key economic challenges that countries have to tackle, they have to develop and implement policies that are objectively designed in reducing inflation and unemployment to the lowest possible levels. Inflation and unemployment rates are also used in measuring a country economic growth (Shimer, 2012). One of the characteristics of a country that is doing badly in terms of economy is high unemployment rates. On the same note, high inflation rates have also been linked to slow economic growth. It is the primary mandate of the government to ensure it brings down high inflation and unemployment rates of a country. The objective of this paper is to discuss the unemployment and inflation rate of Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Arabia economy

The Saudi Arabia economy is heavily dependent on oil and the government has retained control of most of the major economic activities of the county. The economy of Saudi Arabia is the biggest economy in Middle East and the largest exporter of petroleum products in the world. Saudi Arabia has the third largest reserves for natural resources that are valued at USD 34.4 trillion. According to the 2016 statistics, Saudi Arabia had an estimated population of 31.4 million people. The oil sector accounts for 92.5% of the total budget of Saudi Arabia and 97% of the foreign earnings. In addition, the oil sector accounts for 55% of the GDP. 40% of the GDP comes from the private sector (Gause, 2014).  7.5 million People working in Saudi Arabia are foreigners. Notably, the Saudi Arabian government has been encouraging foreign investors to invest in the country in order to reduce it’s over dependence on the oil sector.

Production output performance

Real GDP growth rates

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the economic value of all the activities within a country. GDP is the sum of all market values or prices of all the final goods and services produced within the country during a specified period of time.  GDP simply expresses the wealth of a country. Higher GDP is a clear indication of an economy that is doing well economically. In relation to unemployment, countries with high GDP has low unemployment rates, this is because; higher GDP is an indication of more production activities which translate to more job opportunities. As of 2017, the Saudi Arabia nominal GDP was USD 707 billion and it was ranked 20th in the world. In 2015, the GDP growth rate was 4.1% while in 2016; the GDP was estimated to have grown by 1.4% .The average GDP growth rate is 3.4% with a 5.0% 5-year compound annual growth. The GDP for Saudi Arabia fell for in the first quarter of 2017 when compared to the previous quarters. The year change for the GDP was -0.5% when tabulated against the year 2016 GDP results. In the first quarter of 2017, the GDP of Saudi Arabia was $ 171, 239 million and the country was ranked number 18 out of the 50 countries that used the same scale in calculating the GDP figures. The Saudi Arabia quarterly GDP was $4,983, which was higher than the last year’s figures by $ 434. Real GDP growth rate is defined as a percentage that shows the rate of change for a country’s GDP from start of the year to the end (n.a), (2017). The real GDP figures are used by the policy makers that formulate policies that will help the country recover from economic set-backs. The figures also show the areas of the economy that need to be improved by making the most justified adjustments.

Real GDP Per Capita

GDP Per capita is defined as the GDP divided by the mid-year population, GDP per capita is the sum of the total GDP added by the total production of all the country residents plus all the product taxes and less any subsidies that were not included in the value of the products. GDP per capita is calculated by not factoring deductions for the depreciating assets. Saudi Arabia GDP per capita in 2016 reached 23, 654.87 USD, this was a decrease compared to 2015 figures that were 25,208.24 USD.  The Saudi Arabia nominal GDP per capita reached 168.98 billion dollars. The deflator (implicit price deflator) increased by 3.52% in June 2017. The gross savings rate of Saudi Arabia was 34.53% in June 2017.

Overall, the government has engaged on a program to improve its economic production by expanding the economy. The government is encouraging private investors to invest in other sectors rather than oil industry. The government has put in place mechanisms to allow other economic sectors such as renewable energy to revive (Alshahrani & Alsadiq, 2014).

Labor market analysis

Unemployment in Saudi Arabia

Unemployment is defined as the state of a worker who is willing and able to work but cannot find work.  Unemployment is also defined as the condition of not having a job despite the fact that, the individual has the capability of working. Unemployment is more than lacking a job, it demands people actually looking for the job and in a situation whereby the people are unable to secure the job in totality; the unemployment t rates are calculated and tabulated as official figures. Employment opportunities are not limited to only the public sector; they are open to all sectors of the economy.  The level of unemployment usually varies with the prevailing economic conditions of a country. As noted earlier, unemployment is a critical indicator of the economic health of a country. There are no real benefits of unemployment; it often leads to over dependency and hence straining the economy. The unemployment rate in Saudi Arabia is all time high of 12.7%. This is in accordance to the official data released by the government agencies in first quarter of 2017. The trend is worrying if it continues in the next couple of years, the government has to do something to stop the unemployment rates from escalating.  Unemployment rate increased to 5.80% in the first quarter of 2017 from the 5.60 in the fourth quarter of 2016. On average, the unemployment rates in Saudi Arabia have been 5.54% from 1999 to 2017.

Table 1: Unemployment rates in Saudi Arabia from 2000-2010

Year Unemployment Percent change
2000 8.15 0.62
2001 8.34 2.33
2002 9.66 15.83
2003 10.35 7.14
2004 11 6.28
2005 11.52 4.73
2006 12 4.17
2007 11 -8.33
2008 9.8 -10.91
2009 10.464 6.78
2010 10 -4.43


Graph 1: unemployment rates from 1999 to 2013

From the graphs above, it is evident that, in the last ten years, the unemployment rates in Saudi Arabia have been fluctuating. They rates keep increasing and decreasing as the prevailing economic conditions dictates. All in all, the government of Saudi Arabia have been working so hard to ensure the unemployment rates are reduced to the lowest rates possible. The government have been encouraging the private sector to create more jobs. This is because, most of the people in Saudi Arabia depend on the public sector for job opportunities. There is a general belief that working in the public sector is more advantageous then working in the private sector.

Government’s Measures adopted to achieve full employment

In 2017, the unemployment rates remains all-time high, the sharp increase of the unemployment rates has been linked to the fact that, the economy of Saudi Arabia has been struggling after the decline of the global oil prices. The rising number of the unemployed people is the biggest challenge that the government is dealing with, it had promised to create more jobs but the current situation shows that the government has failed in creating more jobs for the nationals. According to the Saudi press agency statistics, “the total number of Saudis seeking jobs is 906,552, of which around 219,000 are men and 687,500 are women” (n.a), (2017).  The government plan is to cut the unemployment rates by 7% by the year 2030. The same report indicated that, the economy of Saudi Arabia is not creating new jobs for new entrants which makes the unemployment rates to swell by the day. The number of Saudi nationals graduating from colleges and universities has more than double in the past couple of years. The graduates cannot secure employment opportunities because there are limited. Job creation in Saudi Arabia remains a key economic challenge that the government has to deal with. Notably, the government has added more than 433,000 jobs a year but the foreigners take up the most positions. “The private sector is suffering from fiscal reforms and government spending is down. Despite the pressure on expatriates, we’re not seeing enough job growth among nationals to make up for their departure from the market”. The government and other authorities have been making restrictions on the number of foreigners working in the country. They aim is to reduce the 11 million foreigners working in the country so as to give more Saudi nationals more job opportunities.

The increasing unemployment rates in Saudi Arabia is a clear indication that the government economic reforms are failing. The government is unable to keep its economy on track, it is struggling to implement its economic recovery strategy that included creation of more jobs. The labor market is losing 42% of the job opportunities and the little job opportunities available are quickly taken up by the expatriates and hence leaving the Saudi nationals. Unemployment in women and the youth who make up the larger population is high. The government plans and intends to change the dynamics of the job market in order to realign its 2030 vision. The government of Saudi Arabia wants more locals to find works. It needs its people to be proactive in seeking for employment opportunities. The government has an agenda creating more jobs by 9% by 2020 for the Saudi nationals only (Dominic, 2016). More women are being encouraged to seek more jobs. Currently, 28% of the 20-29 years olds in Saudi are unemployed. Around 717,500 Saudis are expected to enter the job market in the next four years. If something is not done, the government will not be able to contain the escalating unemployment rates.

One of the reasons why the Saudi nationals find it difficult to secure jobs in the country is because, they face stiff competition from foreigners. This is because, the Saudi national are not as skilled as the foreigners and hence losing in the job market due to the lack of skills. The government has embarked on training programs that are aimed at making the nationals gain the relevant skills that are needed in the market (Sean, 2017). The government is also seeking to diverse its economy in order to reduce depending on the oil sector too much. The current unemployment problems are related to the downfall of the oil sector prices which led to massive job losses and slow growth of the economy and overall, creating less job opportunities.  The government is also expected to raise the value added taxes and raise fee on foreigners working in the country. The move is expected to discourage influx of foreigners looking for jobs in the country.

Types of unemployment in Saudi Arabia

There are three major types of unemployment in Saudi Arabia that are evident. They include the following; structural, frictional and cyclical. Both structural and frictional are the natural unemployment rates because they are not directly influenced by the forces of demand and supply of goods and services in an economy.

Frictional unemployment

This kind of unemployment arises when the workers decide to leave their old jobs in search for news jobs (Layard, Layard, Nickell & Jackman, 2005).. There are number of reasons that make people leave their jobs, in most cases, people move from one job to the other in search of job satisfaction, it either the workers are looking for better pay or they feel it’s time for them to seek new challenges. In most cases, in Saudi Arabia, the frictional unemployment is common with new graduates who are looking for jobs, they keep moving from one job to the other. In some cases, it happens when the workers are fired or laid off due to unavoidable circumstances

Structural unemployment

Structural unemployment occurs when there are dynamic changes in the economy and leads to the mismatch of skills between the workers and the skills needed by the employers. In Saudi Arabia, the economy is heavily dependent on the oil sector but due to the recent changes in the economy and the government efforts to diversify the economy, a gap of mismatch of skills has been created and that the main reason why most of the Saudis are unable to find work due to lack of skills, matching the jobs available (Layard, Layard, Nickell & Jackman, 2005).

Cyclic unemployment

Cyclic unemployment happens due to changes of business cycle. During the peak seasons, more people are required to work but during the off peak seasons, only few jobs are available for the people. This is mostly evident in the hospitality industry. Workers are contracted for specific periods of the year while rest of the time, they remain jobless.

Price level analysis

Inflation on the other hand is the general increase of prices of goods and services in an economy. Inflation is measured as annual percentage. When the inflation is higher, the consumer purchasing power is usually low. This is because, people will spend more money on a few goods and services. There are two types of inflation that include; demand pull inflation and cost pull inflation. Demand pull inflation occurs when there is a general increase of demand of goods. This happens when a lot of people within an economy gain more purchasing power. Inflation is mostly caused by increased supply of money in an economy. Cost-push inflation on the other end happens when the costs of production sharply increase raising the prices of goods and services (Barro & Grossman, 2008). The increase in costs of production is mostly caused by economic instability associated with wars, political uncertainty and others. Lack of raw materials can also cause cost-push inflation.

According to the Phillips curve, inflation and unemployment are inversely related: this means that, the levels of unemployment decrease when inflation increases (Blanchflower, Bell, Montagnoli & Moro, 2014). Notably, the relationship is not linear, the graph takes an L-shaped form.

The Phillips curve shows the inverse trade-off between inflation and unemployment. As one increases, the other must decrease. In this image, an economy can either experience 3% unemployment at the cost of 6% of inflation, or increase unemployment to 5% to bring down the inflation levels to 2%.”


Unemployment in Saudi Arabia is a real challenge that the government has to deal with and failure to address the problem, the numbers will keep rising. Therefore, it is advisable for the government to take up actions immediately. From the discussions above, we have seen that the government is trying to implement an economic reform program that is designed to create more jobs in the coming years.  By equipping the Saudis with more and appropriate skills, they will be able to take up more job places and hence limiting the foreigners who have taken over the majority of the employment opportunities in the job market.




(n.a), (2017). GDP in Saudi Arabia dropped 3% in first quarter. Retrieved from:

(n.a), (2017). Saudi Arabia unemployment rate climbs to 12.7 percent. Retrieved from:

Alshahrani, M. S. A., & Alsadiq, M. A. J. (2014). Economic growth and government spending in Saudi Arabia: An empirical investigation. International Monetary Fund.

Barro, R. J., & Grossman, H. I. (2008). Money employment and inflation. Cambridge Books.

Blanchflower, D. G., Bell, D. N., Montagnoli, A., & Moro, M. (2014). The Happiness Trade‐Off between Unemployment and Inflation. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 46(S2), 117-141.

Dominic Dudley, (2016). Rising Unemployment Suggests Saudi Government Reforms Are Failing. Retrieved from:

Gause, F. G. (2014). Saudi Arabia in the New Middle East (No. 63). Council on Foreign Relations.

Layard, P. R. G., Layard, R., Nickell, S. J., & Jackman, R. (2005). Unemployment: macroeconomic performance and the labour market. Oxford University Press on Demand.

Sean Cronin, (2017). Youth unemployment one of toughest challenges for Saudi Arabia, IMF official says. Retrieved from:

Shimer, R. (2012). Reassessing the ins and outs of unemployment. Review of Economic Dynamics, 15(2), 127-148.

Code of Professional Ethics

Exercise 1: Code of Professional Ethics

Almost every professional society has developed and posted on-line its code of conduct which members of that profession are expected to follow in order to remain “members of good standing”. In this exercise, I want you to examine the code of conduct that is most closely associated with Business Management. In a 2 typewritten page review of your profession’s code of conduct (please attach the code to the exercise) I want you to examine and discuss such things as:

1.) What issues/topics are covered? Why these?
2.) What topics are not covered? Why not?
3.) What are the strengths of the code of conduct?
4.) What are the weaknesses of the code?
5.) How effective is the code in preventing misconduct? Proof?

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Is there a health-related cause that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is not currently covering that you would like to see included?



highly effective organizations case studies

Compare and contrast the case studies in an effort to describe highly effective organizations.

Then, assess the behavior and structure of the organizations. Explain what is effective, what is not effective, and identify specific approaches to make organizations more effective.

Use at least two credible sources

This assignment should be 1300 to 1500 words (4–5 pages) when completed.


At approximately 15:45 PM, Strike Team 2642 carefully navigated the one-lane gravel road that led to Rodgers Ridge, where they had been ordered to engage in some brush clearing and structural defense operations around three large vacation homes that were distributed across the ridge top. Captain Doug Chandler was leading a strike team for the first time, and he cautiously watched the two separate smoke columns that spouted from the 1600-acre Camp Creek Fire and the 2300-acre Jones Ranch Fire in the valley just beyond the ridge. For the moment, the wind was at their backs and would be pushing the fire away from the ridge.

The five units that made up Captain Chandler’s strike team were all heavy brush (HB) units, each staffed with one officer and three fire fighters and carrying 500 gallons (1892.5 liters) of water, foam, and the normal complement of tools. As they reached the large turnaround near the ridge top, the captain noted that all three homes were built within 50 ft (15.2 m) of each other, with one being the closest to the lip of the canyon, and the other two set back along a single driveway that led off the main road. At 4:20 PM, Captain Chandler ordered two of his brush units, HB26 and HB27, to proceed all the way down the driveway to the house at the end and to “prepare the residence house for defensive operations.” He sent brush units HB28 and HB29 to the two remaining houses and ordered them to prep those structures, while he stayed in a “lookout” position in HB25 near the driveway entrance.

At 4:27 PM, Captain Chandler received a call on his cell phone from the Operations Division. They informed him that the weather was due to change, and that he could expect temperatures to increase for another 30 minutes to a high of 94°F. Humidity was expected to stay extremely low, and the winds were to turn 180° by 7:00 PM. Captain Chandler in turn contacted his strike team by radio, telling them, “Strike Team 2642, all units, just be advised we’re due for a wind change.” He issued no further orders, and radio records showed that only HB26 acknowledged the message. Eighteen minutes later, at 4:45 PM, Captain Chandler in HB25 again communicated a message to his strike team: “ST 2642, all units, from my position it appears the wind has changed and may be pushing the fire toward the ridge.” This time, both HB26 and HB27 acknowledged, both with the single word “Copy.”

Just 12 minutes later, at 4:57 PM, HB26 frantically radioed that they were in danger. “HB26 and 27 here, we’ve … we’ve got lots of fire rolling toward us and it appears it’ll cut between our location and yours.” (Postincident analysis indicated the fire was moving at a speed of greater than 10 ft per second [3.1 m per second] at that point.)

As Captain Chandler attempted to radio his Operations Division for assistance, he was “walked on” by HB26, who again called out, “27 from 26 … we’re taking cover inside the house, you should follow us.”

At this point, Captain Chandler ordered HB28 and HB29 to “pull back immediately from your positions, pull back to the gravel turnaround where my rig is based.” He then radioed, “Break … HB26, what do you need?” HB26 responded, “The fire has rolled over our position … both units HB26 and HB27 are on fire. We are in the house in need of assistance.”


Rescue Flight Four, a Bell 430 helicopter, hammered through the hot August day, eating up the miles between its base station in the city center and the rural Cherry River, where fire crews were searching for a lost child who was believed trapped underwater. Paramedic Maria Gomez, sitting up front with Pilot Marty Chase, eyed the towering thunderclouds that appeared to grow in front of them. Frantic radio transmissions could be heard from the scene: Fire fighters in a boat, using an underwater camera, had spotted the little girl and would be deploying divers any moment. Gomez flipped the visor of her helmet up and looked over at Marty, expecting him to comment on the weather. At that very moment, Marty pulled his microphone close to his mouth and said to the medical crew, “I need your full attention here.”

Nurse Tom Polk, who was riding in the back of the aircraft preparing medical equipment, turned in his seat and stuck his head into the front compartment. Tom could see the heavy rain falling from the clouds, and he also could hear the ground crews as they prepared to attempt a rescue. The pressure was on.

Marty spoke up, “I can divert around to the west of these squalls, but it will take an extra 10 to 12 minutes. Alternatively, we can turn around and tell the ground crews to transport by ground.”

Gomez looked at Polk, who had far more airborne experience. Polk said, “Let’s try going around, Marty, and if you see anything at all that makes you worried, abort and we’ll let the fire fighters know immediately.”

Marty then restated to the crew his intentions. “We’re going to try an approach that diverts us to the west. If any of you gets uncomfortable, or if you think it’s going to take too long and we should advise them to go by ground, speak up.” Gomez gave the ground crews the new updated estimated arrival time, and Marty banked the aircraft to the left. Thankfully, the crew was able to skirt the storm, and 20 minutes after taking off from their hospital base, the big 430 settled onto the grass near a large camping area.

Gomez and Polk with their medical equipment bags stepped from the helicopter moments after it touched down. Both crouched low and hurried toward the group of fire fighters who were working near the bank of the Cherry River. Gomez, who also worked as a fire fighter/paramedic in the city where the aircraft was based, noticed that none of the local fire fighters working next to the river were wearing personal flotation devices (PFDs). She knew that at the agency where she worked, PFDs were standard safety equipment for anyone working near a body of water. Glancing over at the fire department pickup that had towed the boat to the scene, she noted several PFDs stored in the pickup bed. Before she could say anything to the incident commander, however, the little girl was pulled from the water and placed into the boat.

Thirty minutes earlier, three-year-old Susie Bailey had slipped away from her family, who had been seated at a nearby picnic table. After searching for a few minutes, the family called the local fire department, who responded with their water rescue team.

Paramedic Gomez and Nurse Polk started resuscitative efforts the moment Susie was removed from the boat. After they placed a breathing tube in her trachea and started CPR, they moved Susie to the aircraft for the return trip to Samaritan Trauma Center.

As Rescue Flight Four landed on the helipad at Samaritan Trauma Center, the flight crew was met by a team from Samaritan’s emergency department. During the short flight, Nurse Polk and Paramedic Gomez had been able to restore Susie’s pulse, but the little girl had not yet started breathing on her own. With Polk managing the airway and Gomez stabilizing the intravenous lines they had started, Susie was wheeled into the brightly lit trauma bay.

As the flight crew handed off care of their patient, they watched the highly trained physician and nursing team go to work. Even though every movement looked well choreographed, Polk and Gomez could see that Susie’s cardiac rhythm was starting to falter. Several minutes went by as the flight crew stood on the side watching a medical resident and the attending pediatric emergency medicine physician continue the resuscitation.

Paramedic Gomez then observed that the patient’s abdomen was distended, and she turned to comment about it to Nurse Polk. However, Nurse Polk had left the trauma bay, and the physician team continued to work. Gomez then leaned in and mentioned the distended abdomen to the nurse taking notes. Her concern was that the decrease in ventilatory capacity caused by a distended abdomen could make the child retain carbon dioxide, creating an acidosis that could cause cardiac problems.

However, even after Gomez’s comments, the recording nurse remained silent, unwilling to challenge a doctor. After several minutes Paramedic Gomez spoke up and mentioned the distended abdomen to the attending physician, suggesting that decompressing the abdomen might help. A quick assessment by the trauma team revealed a high carbon dioxide level and a low pH. The medical team decompressed the stomach, ventilations became easier, and the cardiac rhythm stabilized. However, Susie died a day later from complications.


Scenario A

In a large California city, Engine 38 turned onto Bay View Boulevard with its siren blaring. Fire Fighter Andrea Collins looked across the cab at Fire Fighter Ian Ainoa and noticed that he had not fastened his seat belt. She wondered whether to say something to him. Ian was far more experienced than she was and had been working the busy Engine 38 for seven years. Andrea was a “newbie,” and this was her first shift working at the busiest and most decorated station in the department.

Scenario B

Paramedics Gill Pryor and Mandy Humphrey, working for an urban EMS program in Florida, arrived on scene at Crescent Bay Park, where a 26-year-old woman lay unconscious on the boat dock. Patient Karli Kumar had just been pulled off of a ski boat. Fifteen minutes earlier, she had been struck by another boat while water skiing, and she had suffered a serious head injury. Gill noted that the local fire service was already on scene, and they had started preparing to intubate Karli using paralytic medications. As Gill walked up to the patient’s side, the fire medic handed Gill a syringe and said “Push the meds. We are ready with the tube.” Gill cleaned off the intravenous port and started administering the medication, all the while wondering what exactly was in the syringe.

Scenario C

Captain Ronald Goldhaber walked the one block from where his crew had parked their ladder truck to the scene of the fire in a suburban Oregon town. Three stores at the east end of the 10-year-old strip mall were fully involved, with fire pushing out the large front windows. The next exposure was a large jewelry store, and Goldhaber’s four-person crew from Ladder 7 had just been ordered to vertically ventilate that particular store. Goldhaber noted that the fire had not yet penetrated the wall separating this store from its neighbors, but there was a considerable amount of black smoke pushing hard from under the front eaves. Captain Goldhaber turned to his most experienced fire fighter, Ted Hackman, and asked him what he thought of the order they had just been given. In the postincident investigative notes, Goldhaber reported that Fire Fighter Hackman had simply rolled his eyes and said nothing. In those same notes, Hackman said that he “knew this was a bad situation,” but didn’t say anything because “I’m just the fire fighter.”

After Ladder 7 climbed onto the roof from the rear of the building, the truss structures in the involved stores failed, pulling the wall of the jewelry store down and subsequently collapsing the jewelry store roof. Miraculously, the roof failed in a rearward direction, and the crew from Ladder 7 literally slid into the parking lot with minor injuries.

Tampa General Hospital

Disease: Infectious Diseases

Tampa General Hospital was started back in 1927 on Davis Island. When the hospital first opened it only provided room for 186 bed alongside a nursing school. Currently, the hospital provides 1007 beds with abundant staff and the primary teaching hospital for the USF Health Morsani College of Medicine. On their website, there is a lot of information and resources available to patients within the Hillsborough and Pasco County region that will help with providing better care.

There is a section on the website titled “Infectious Diseases” that describes a range of different infectious diseases treated by the hospital. As the site states, there are many illnesses out there from the common cold to more complex diseases. Many of the diseases are grouped into different categories such as bacterial, bone, fungal, joint, tropical, parasitic and viral infections. Anyone can contract an infectious disease, especially those with a weakened immune system. Tampa General provides services for immunization to diagnose, treatment, long-term symptom management along with continuinig education on infection control and prevention.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Is there a health-related cause that the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is not currently covering that you would like to see included?


The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is a private foundation that was started in the year 2000. The foundation was started by former Microsoft chairman and founder Bill Gates and the wife Melinda Gates and was previously known as William H. Gates Foundation. The foundation is guided by their vision “every life has equal value” where they strive to make people live productive and healthy lives. The foundation has made an impact in developing countries especially in Africa where health programs have been funded to fight tropical diseases like malaria. The foundation has also funded the research for finding a vaccine for the novel corona virus (Mandal, 2020).

Global Health Organizations

Global health challenges require partnership between governments and private organizations in order to fight such challenges. International organizations have assisted in funding health programs that has ensured the success of health programs. According to Anbazhagan and Anbazhagan (2016) NGOs can work with international agencies and institutions to fund, implement and evaluate health programs. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is one organization that has thrived in funding health programs that have been beneficial for populations. The foundation is the largest private foundation in the world started by Bill and Melinda Gates. The recent novel corona virus that has disrupted the lives of people globally has had adverse effects when it comes to health and health care. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation have committed more than $350 million towards the fight of the virus. According to Mandal (2000) some of the funding is being used to find a potential vaccine.


International organizations play an important role in dealing with the challenges of global health. These organizations provide funding and the resources needed when it comes to addressing global health challenges. It is through these organizations that health programs are able to run professional leading to success of global health programs.


Anbazhagan, Suguna & Anbazhagan, Surekha. (2016). Role of non-governmental organizations in global health. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health. 17-22. 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20151544.

Mandal Ananya. (2020). Bill and Melinda Gates fund potential vaccine against COVID-19. News Medical Life Sciences. Retrived from

The Bill Gates and Melinda Foundation. (n.d.). News. Retrieved from



Thesis on the Respondent’s Perception on Cost Overrun Mitigation Measures in the Construction industry Projects: Galliford Try, UK Case Study

Industries specializing in construction projects significantly contribute to development of economic growth in any country. Recent studies have shown that construction industry is becoming among the leading industries across the world. Construction projects are increasingly becoming more complex which indicates that there is rising demand for construction managers who are able to deliver projects within estimated budget, with expected quality and on time. Among the major challenges facing construction industry in both developing and developed countries is the problem of cost overruns which is chronic. Cost overrun can also be referred to as budget overrun or cost increase and entails costs incurred which exceed projected amount as a result of underestimation of actual cost in the process of budgeting. Flyvberg et al., (2002) did comprehensive study and found out that 9 out of 10 construction projects registered cost overrun. It means the cost overrun problem is a key factor that deserves serious attention and studies in order to mitigate its effects on future construction projects. There are two main categories of incidences causing cost overruns – those attributed to forces beyond the control of management, and those attributed to poor planning and management of resources. There’s little management can do over incidences that are beyond its control but for everything else, it is important for project management to do everything within its scope of power to exercise control over cost performance of construction projects to make sure that the construction cost is not beyond projected budget. Hence project cost management is necessary for keeping construction projects within their defined budget.

Types of Construction Costs

For a project to be said to be completed successfully, it must have been done within budget. Niazi and Painting (2017) note that a construction company’s productivity is known through its cost management of projects. To know the cost overrun of a project, find the difference between the estimated planned cost and actual cost on project completion. Since costs have a direct correlation with cost overrun, the project work unit’s cost consists of various cost elements which include plant and machinery costs, material costs, labour costs, and administration costs among other expenses.

1.1       Sources of Cost Overrun

As Aljohani et al. (2017) observed that 90% of projects end up being cost overrun. Their study found at least 173 causes of cost overrun with the main culprits being finances, design changes, payment delays, contractor inexperience, poor cost estimation, poor material purchasing, and management. Olawale and Sun (2010) highlighted that cost overrun as a rule in the construction industry applies to construction projects in UK. For example, Kunda, Barley, and Evans (2002) listed major important projects undertaken in UK which suffered cost overruns. Construction of new office of parliament situated proximally to the House of Parliament and which was considered as among the most expensive buildings constructed in the UK encountered cost overruns. The cost overruns encountered were attributed to delay in approval of costs and designs, inflation changes and problems of underground stations located under the construction site. Another construction project whose final cost was thrice of the base budget is the British Library which was constructed in 1998.

Cleopatra and Phaedra

analyzing two characters based on two different books, Antony and Cleopatra by William Shakespeare and Phaedra by Jean Racine. There are evidently many differences and similarities between these two characters that manifest as one explores the way each author has presented or expressed the characters given the circumstances their circumstances. However, Shakespeare’s clarity in portrayal of a more sensible character inspires the reader to identify with the emotions of his plot more closely. On the other hand, Racine’s portrayal of character makes the readers wonder continuously. These are the attributes that bring similarities and differences in related plots that develop and cannot be overlooked. Therefore, it is necessary to look into the characters of Cleopatra in Antony and Cleopatra by Shakespeare and Phaedra in Phaedra by Racine when examining their similarities and differences

In Antony and Cleopatra, Shakespeare explores the character of Cleopatra through her actions in the play. Cleopatra has a very strong character in some sense; she is an attractive woman, loves drama and most of all she is in love with Marc Antony (Shakespeare 1998, pp.23 – 24). However, she may have done things that Antony disapproved, but it is clear throughout the plot that she is deeply and truly in love with him considering that she committed suicide after learning about Antony’s death (Shakespeare 1998, p.144). Cleopatra’s charm and competence in comparison with other women of her time gave her more opportunities and authority in life (Shakespeare 1998, pp.67 – 70,). On the other hand, Phaedra by Racine has totally different characters to Cleopatra. Phaedra is a woman to feel sorry for and the plans she makes in life make her look evil and not smart. She falls in love with her husband’s son Hippolytus which as a consequence, shocks everyone else and causes her a lot of pain and misery (Racine 2004, pp.190 – 191, Racine). In contrast to Cleopatra, Phaedra is not a strong character. She is a very confused woman and it seems that all she seeks is the love of Hippolytus without considering the consequences (Racine 2004, pp.175 -177).  Phaedra was in a bad situation and could not think clearly, but even in this circumstance she could at least have avoided sorrow and mystery of those around her through her actions. Even though, Phaedra is not in control of her feelings, she is in a completely different situation from Cleopatra, and her forbidden love makes it hard for one to sympathize with her pain and mystery. As a result, one cannot adequately compare Cleopatra and Phaedra’s behavior as they both are in different and unique circumstances.

Cleopatra and Phaedra have some similarities especially with regards to their positions in the society with both being queens. In addition, Mark Anthony loves his wife Cleopatra dearly as does Theseus, Phaedra’s husband. However unlike Cleopatra, Phaedra does not know what to do at awkward moments or to cherish the love of her husband. Phaedra is confused most of the time; she is very weak and cannot control her feelings for Hippolytus (Racine 2004, pp.158 -152). Furthermore, she is unable to find a solution to stop her suffering and distress; she is extremely confused and cannot make decisions on her own which makes her seek help from Oenone, her nurse (Racine 2004, p.186). Even though, Phaedra’s character does not make her rule the entire story, but it was due to her inappropriate love that the story is a tragedy. Phaedra’s love for her husband’s son is out of her control since it’s her destiny or fate and by the power of gods, though ultimately, the audience is made to believe that it is the absence of morals that make her fall in love passionately (Racine 2004, p. 201- 202). Despite the fact that she fell in love with Hippolytus her husband’s son, she could have at least tried not to make her feelings so obvious and hence cause trouble, but instead she chose to show her feelings and caused suffering to everyone.  On the other hand, Cleopatra is a captivating character that is rare among women of her time and in comparison to Phaedra she has a charming personality (Shakespeare 1998, pp.67 – 70). In addition, she often tries to find solutions that bring happiness and makes extraordinary plans to make her reach her desired goals (Shakespeare 1998, pp.14- 19). Cleopatra is one of the strongest and most inspiring female characters of Shakespeare’s story even though the entire story is not based on her, but her presence is nevertheless vital for the plot. She is the reason why Shakespeare’s story seems so extreme and interesting. Evidently, Cleopatra is a woman who expresses her feelings very accurately, has a strong personality gives her authority over large number of people even though sometimes she can be unyieldingly harsh (Shakespeare 1998, pp.133 – 134).


Shakespeare has a good understanding of the character he created Cleopatra. Indeed, he made her act clear enough to be understood and makes his audience admire his creation. In addition, the book Antony and Cleopatra is written clearly with the intent of having an excellent understanding of Cleopatra’s character and personality. Shakespeare’s writing on Cleopatra leave s one wondering what she would do in tough situations (Shakespeare 1998, p. 77 – 79). Certainly, Shakespeare has a superior understanding of Cleopatra as her actions and words leave a great impression on the readers of the play. Phaedra is one of Racine’s most admirable creations; he has made her neither innocent nor guilty but because of the guilt she feels towards her feelings for Hippolytus makes her mostly a victim than a sinner (Racine 2004, p.213 – 214). Evidently, Racine expressed Phaedra in a satisfactory way but not in a way to make the audience have a full understanding of her actions; due to conflicting views he created in her personality that made her appear neither guilty nor innocent. However, this difference is only visible when the two characters, Cleopatra and Phaedra are put under consideration. Racine’s lack of cautiousness and curiosity in comparison to Shakespeare restricts his characters to be free and independent and made them be more concealed just like the way he represents Phaedra in his book. Also, Racine created two conflicting characters in Phaedra in his story; one is that she was an innocent woman worthy of pity from readers as she could her feelings of forbidden love and also made her a sinner due to the plans she made that makes her to be guilty. Therefore, this makes it very difficult to distinguish which set of characteristics suits her the most out of all. Racine named his book Phaedra because the entire story is based on her and all the drama comes from this character.

In essence, both Phaedra and Cleopatra have their differences and similarities as the plots of the plays develop. The depiction of Phaedra is that of a character confused and unable to deal with her circumstances, but had Racine shown one side of characterization then readers would clearly have an idea about her character as she is neither good nor evil. On one hand, one feels pity for Phaedra as she cannot deal with forbidden love, making the story tragic. On the other hand, it seems that destiny is cruel to her and her bad experiences are similar to those of Cleopatra.  On the contrary, Shakespeare shows one side of Cleopatra as one who is strong willed, to the extent that readers clearly understand how she deals with her circumstances. Cleopatra’s character and personality is so alluring that readers can identify with her. Furthermore, her actions make one to empathize with her situation after the death of Anthony, while her strong personality gives her influence over other people. Thus, both authors are successful in showing the lives of both Queens and how their personalities affect choices.  Cleopatra is a likeable character who facilitates the plot of the story making the story so fascinating, Phaedra may bring out both positive and negative feelings from reader, but being a tragic story the play also has along lasting impact on readers